economic environmental dolomite compound crusher sell at a loss in argentina

economic environmental dolomite compound crusher sell at a loss in argentina

Vol. 34:279-304 (Volume publication date 21 November 2009) First published online as a Review in Advance on July 6, 2009 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.environ.33.021407.092325

[email protected]

Hot Cone Crusher Brief Introduction

We are a professional mining machinery manufacturer, the main equipment including: jaw crusher, cone crusher and other sandstone equipment;Ball mill, flotation machine, concentrator and other beneficiation equipment; Powder Grinding Plant, rotary dryer, briquette machine, mining, metallurgy and other related equipment.If you are interested in our products or want to visit the nearby production site, you can click the button to consult us.

As the world's economies become more integrated and the global economy subsequently grows, there is increasing concern regarding how such trends will affect the environment. In fact, the relationship between globalization and the environment has become quite contentious in policy circles. In part in response to these controversies, a burgeoning amount of academic attention has emerged that examines the globalization/environment nexus. Although there have been advances in the thinking about these relationships, significant challenges remain. This article provides a critical taxonomy that will help scholars better understand the overwhelming literature on the subject and also outlines the key challenges that scholars and policy makers will face for a second wave of thinking on the subject

The world economy is witnessing a new wave of economic globalization, defined as the integration of the world's economies through an increasing array of bilateral and multilateral, regional trade and investment agreements. Many governments are also unilaterally reducing the role of the state in economic affairs. The result is an increase in the flow of goods, services, and information across the globe. By embedding the flows of goods and services in their institutional context, this definition builds on the thinking of Nye and Donahue who define economic globalization as the process of increasing economic globalism. They refer to economic globalism as the “long-distance flows of goods, services, and capital, and the information and perceptions that accompany market exchange” (1, p. 4)

economic globalization and the environment | annual review

There have indeed been large increases in the volumes of international trade and investment in the world economy. According to the World Bank, trade (exports plus imports) as a percent of world gross domestic product (GDP) was 24% in 1960, 38% in 1985, and 52% in 2005. In other words, over half of all economic activity in the world economy (which is close to 50 trillion dollars in size) is traded (2)

The environment is also experiencing profound change. In recent years, numerous assessments have been conducted regarding the environmental health of the earth, both at the ecosphere and the sectoral levels. Perhaps, the mostly widely cited ecosphere assessment is the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP)'s Global Environmental Outlook GEO4 Environment for Development: Summary for Decision Makers (3). Some of the key findings from UNEP's 2007 assessment include the following:

Another ecosphere-wide examination is the Millennium Ecosystem Report, Living Beyond Our Means: Natural Assets and Human Well-being (Statement of the MA Board) (4), conducted by 1300 experts from 95 countries. This report finds close to two-thirds of the ecosystem services that support life on Earth are being degraded or used unsustainably. The report concludes that “throughout human history, no period has experienced interference with the biological machinery of the planet on the scale witnessed in the second half of the twentieth century” (4)

Global warming is “unequivocal” and has been observed in increases in “global average air and ocean temperatures, widespread melting of snow and ice and rising global average sea level, this has affected ecosystems on all continents and in nearly all oceans.”

economic globalization and the environment | annual review

“There is high agreement and much evidence that[,] with current climate change mitigation policies and related sustainable development practices, global GHG emissions will continue to grow over the next few decades” (5, pp. 2–6)

How closely are these trends related? In other words, to what extent is the integration of the world's economies and the subsequent rise in world trade and investment affecting environment quality and the politics and policies of environmental mitigation? Early political debates in the late 1980s and 1990s were rife with contention over this issue. In what is now seen as rather simplistic depictions of a very complex set of interactions, many argued that globalization would automatically improve the environment, whereas others said that globalization automatically makes the environment worse off. At this writing, it is generally understood that globalization has had both positive and negative impacts on the environment and that public policies are needed to ensure that globalization works for the environment. However, what form those policies take and the extent to which those policies are obtainable in a globalizing world are topics still under debate

This article provides a critical review of the burgeoning field of interdisciplinary research and policy analysis that has emerged surrounding globalization and the environment. Scholarly work on globalization and environment, mirrored in part by policy discussions on the subject, can be divided into three subcategories:

economic globalization and the environment | annual review

Globalization and environmental quality: To what extent do trade and investment flows, and the policies that lead to increases in such flows, affect environmental quality both positively and negatively? This literature consists of work largely (but not exclusively) by economists and natural scientists

Globalization and environmental policy: The conclusion of the globalization and environmental quality literature is that, in the absence of effective public policy, globalization can adversely affect environmental quality. Such a conclusion spawns a discussion of the policy and governance necessary to ensure that globalization and environmental quality are mutually reinforcing. This subfield examines the extent to which new trade rules affect the ability of nations and the global governance institutions outside the trade regime to deploy effective environmental policy. There also is a literature on the extent to which new environmental policies will affect the ability of firms to compete internationally. This literature is often conducted by legal scholars, economists, and political scientists

Globalization and environmental politics: Both the impacts of globalization on the environment and the politics of public policy to mitigate such impacts are highly controversial in the political realm. It should thus come as no surprise that a cadre of political scientists has arisen that examines the political economy of environmental aspects of trade policy and conversely the trade aspects of environmental policy. This work is largely conducted by political scientists

economic globalization and the environment | annual review

After almost 20 years of research that includes countless volumes, special journal issues, articles, testimony, and so forth, a number of the more contentious issues that arose in the beginning of debates over globalization and environment have come close to consensus. A number of issues remain as controversial as ever. After providing a background to the three subissues, this paper demonstrates where consensus lies and then outlines the current shortcomings in theoretical, empirical, and policy aspects of the field. Following this brief introduction, there are four additional sections in this article. Section 2 examines the relationship between globalization and environmental quality; section 3 covers globalization and environmental policy. Section 4 looks at some of the newest developments in the field, namely the newly emerging trade and climate change debate. Finally, section 5 summarizes the findings of this work and suggests directions for future research and policy

Political and policy debates over globalization and environment stem from conceptions regarding the impact that increasing trade and investment flows will have on environmental quality. Since the early 1990s, some have contended that trade liberalization would lead to economic growth and that once nations reached a certain level of income they would begin to reduce negative impacts on the environment (6). Others countered with the opposite argument: trade liberalization would lead to a mass migration of pollution-intensive firms to nations with weaker environmental laws. This would lead to increases in pollution in the developing world and put downward pressure on environmental regulations in nations with stringent norms. Such debates jump-started what has become a substantial literature on these questions. Ironically, there is now an emerging consensus in academic thinking regarding these questions, yet the policy community is often still mired in older debates. This section of the paper first discusses the theoretical perspectives regarding economic globalization and the environment, then describes the empirical evidence regarding those theories

In theory, international trade and the environment can be mutually compatible and, perhaps, even reinforcing. According to the theories of international trade on the one hand and environmental economics on the other, trade liberalization can bring economic benefits that can be distributed in a manner to protect the environment

economic globalization and the environment | annual review

The economist Ricardo (7) showed that because countries face different costs to produce the same product when each country produces and then exports the goods for which it has comparatively lower costs all parties benefit. The effects of comparative advantage (as Ricardo's notion became called) on factors of production were developed in the Heckscher-Ohlin model. This model assumes that in all countries there is perfect competition, technology is constant and readily available, there is the same mix of goods and services, and factors of production (such as capital and labor) can freely move between industries (8)

Within this rubric, the Stolper-Samuelson theorem (8) adds that international trade can fetch a higher price for the products (and hence lead to higher overall welfare) in which a country has a comparative advantage. In addition, foreign direct investment, which occurs when predominantly multinational corporations (MNCs) move physical operations to another country, can contribute to development by increasing employment and by human capital and technological spillover effects, whereby foreign presence accelerates the introduction of new technology and investment. In theory, the gains from trade accruing to winning sectors freed to exploit their comparative advantages have the so-called Pareto possibility to compensate the losers of trade liberalization. Moreover, if the net gains from trade are positive, there are more funds available to stimulate growth and protect the environment. In a perfect world, free trade and increasing exports could indeed be unequivocally beneficial to all parties (8)

Direct effects are the least studied but can be the most grave in the short term. Trade is conducted through transportation, namely through shipping, trucking, and aviation. Increased transportation can have negative effects on environmental quality unless the techniques by which we transport goods and services are altered

economic globalization and the environment | annual review

A useful framework for thinking about the indirect effects has been proposed by Grossman & Krueger (9). They identify three mechanisms by which trade and investment liberalization impact the environment: scale, composition, and technique effects. Scale effects occur when liberalization causes an expansion of economic activity. If the nature of that activity is unchanged but the scale is growing, then pollution and resource depletion will increase along with output. Composition effects occur when increased trade leads nations to specialize in the sectors in which they enjoy a comparative advantage

When comparative advantage is derived from differences in environmental stringency, then the composition effect of trade will exacerbate existing environmental problems in the countries with relatively lax regulations. Race-to-the-bottom discussions are perfectly plausible in economic theory. The Heckscher-Ohlin (H-O) theory in trade economics postulates that nations will gain a comparative advantage in those industries where they are factor abundant. Applying the H-O theory to pollution then, it could be argued that a country with less stringent environmental standards would be factor abundant in the ability to pollute. Therefore, trade liberalization between a developed and a developing nation when the developed nation has more stringent regulations may lead to an expansion in pollution-intensive economic activity in the developing country with the weaker regulations

Technique effects, or changes in resource extraction and production technologies, can potentially lead to a decline in pollution per unit of output for two reasons. First, the liberalization of trade and investment may encourage MNCs to transfer cleaner technologies to developing countries. Second, if economic liberalization increases income levels, the newly affluent citizens may demand a cleaner environment

economic globalization and the environment | annual review

The economic and environmental dimensions of globalization and environment are outlined in Table 1. The first column exhibits the winners and losers of trade liberalization. The second column outlines the economic dimensions; the third outlines the environmental aspects.

From an economic perspective, when liberalization occurs and nations trade where they have a comparative advantage, the winners are those sectors which can now export more of their goods or services. Theoretically, this will cause expansion not only of exports but also of employment and wages in such sectors as well. The losers of the liberalization are those sectors that will find it harder to face an inflow of newly competitive imports. In those sectors, one would expect a contraction of those businesses, layoffs, and wage reductions. If the gains to the export sector outweigh the losses to the import sector, the net gains are positive. This leaves the possibilities that the winners can compensate the losers and/or that the gains from trade can be used to stimulate propoor growth

Drawing on the framework on trade and environment outlined above, the third column in Table 1 outlines potential environmental winners and losers. There can possibly be environmental benefits from being an economic winner as well. First, this can occur if trade liberalization causes a compositional shift toward less environmentally degrading forms of economic activity. Second, there is also the possibility of environmental improvements in relatively environmentally destructive sectors if those sectors attract large amounts of investment from firms that transfer state-of-the-art environmental technologies to the exporting sector

economic globalization and the environment | annual review

According to the peer-reviewed literature, the environmental impacts of economic globalization are far from uniform and straightforward. Here, I briefly review aggregated attempts to assess the impacts of globalization and the environment—the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) literature. Then, I discuss some of the more specific literature on direct and indirect effects of economic globalization on the environment

The EKC literature attempts to examine the aggregate impact of economic globalization and the environment. In 1992, the World Bank's World Development Report made the case that, although trade-led growth may cause sharp increases in environmental degradation during the early stages of economic development, such degradation would begin to taper off as nations reached turning points ranging from $3000 to $5000 GDP per capita (9). The Bank was generalizing from a landmark 1991 paper by economists Grossman & Krueger (9). This article examined the relationship between ambient concentrations of criteria air pollutants and GDP per capita. When they plotted their regression results, they found that lower-income nations had higher rates of pollution per capita, whereas the reverse occurred for higher-income nations. A simple depiction of the EKC is exhibited in Figure 1.

This relationship became known as the EKC, borrowing its name from the 1950s landmark article by Simon Kuznets (10), who found a similar relationship between income inequality and GDP per capita in a cross section of countries. For the developed countries, the three factors described earlier (scale, composition, and technique effects) are seen to be interacting: As income has grown, the composition of industry has shifted toward relatively less-pollution-intensive economic activity, and at the same time, improvements in technology and environmental regulation have occurred. Although overall levels of growth (scale) have vastly increased, they have been offset by composition and technique effects

economic globalization and the environment | annual review

To this day, generalizations of these findings have been used to make the claim that nations should grow now through trade liberalization and worry about the environment later. EKC studies have become a cottage industry, with close to 100 articles published since the original article. What is ironic is that, as the policy community has rushed to generalize the EKC in the political realm, the consensus in the peer-reviewed academic literature on the EKC has become much more cautious. Most importantly, the literature shows empirical evidence that the EKC is relatively weak and limited. Many pollutants do not have an inverted-U relationship. Some environmental degradation, such as CO2 emissions, residual solid waste, and deforestation, increases as income increases, whereas clean water and urban sanitation decrease along with income increases (11). In addition, when an EKC is found, turning points are usually much higher than originally estimated. For this paper, the articles in Reference 11 were analyzed. Table 2 lists the studies in the first column, the pollutants examined in the second column, and the turning points (if there was one) in the third column. It was found that only 28% of peer-reviewed EKC studies found turning points at all. When turning points were found, they averaged $19,518, implying that nations have to endure environmental degradation for many years before the environment begins to turn around. When environmental quality does turn toward the better, such forces are not automatic. One specific example is warranted: As East Asian miracle nations grew, they indeed polluted the environment significantly. They show that over time these nations began to improve environmental governance and performance, but this did not happen automatically. Indeed, it was conscious orchestration by the state, which integrated environmental policy into industrial and innovation policies, that led to success (12).

There is also an immense literature on the direct and indirect effects of economic globalization. Direct impacts of globalization and environment have received limited study. There are numerous studies assessing the environmental impacts of transportation, but few, other than those discussed here, attempt to analyze the independent and significant impact that economic globalization has on these trends relative to other factors such as population, consumption, technological change, and so forth

latest news

Copyright © 2021.Henan Expert Mining Machinery Co., ltd. All rights reserved. Sitemap

gotop