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South America -ChileSee AMECO offices inChile Santiago SantiagoReyes Lavalle 3340, Oficina 501, Piso 5, Las Condes,Santiago,Chile+56.2.24443700 Antofagasta Antofagasta Avenida Ruta El Cobre 300, Sitios 22 y 23, PlazedeNegocios La Negra, Antofagasta,Chile+56.55.2514000 Copiapo Copiapo Av. Copayapu 3654, Lote 12, Copiapo,Chile

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marine reserves can mitigate and promote adaptation to

Strong decreases in greenhouse gas emissions are required to meet the reduction trajectory resolved within the 2015 Paris Agreement. However, even these decreases will not avert serious stress and damage to life on Earth, and additional steps are needed to boost the resilience of ecosystems, safeguard their wildlife, and protect their capacity to supply vital goods and services. We discuss how well-managed marine reserves may help marine ecosystems and people adapt to five prominent impacts of climate change: acidification, sea-level rise, intensification of storms, shifts in species distribution, and decreased productivity and oxygen availability, as well as their cumulative effects. We explore the role of managed ecosystems in mitigating climate change by promoting carbon sequestration and storage and by buffering against uncertainty in management, environmental fluctuations, directional change, and extreme events. We highlight both strengths and limitations and conclude that marine reserves are a viable low-tech, cost-effective adaptation strategy that would yield multiple cobenefits from local to global scales, improving the outlook for the environment and people into the future

It is abundantly clear from successive Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports that the impacts of greenhouse gas emissions on the planet are accelerating (1). Even the most extreme emissions reduction trajectory resolved within the Paris Agreement (Article 2) (2), to limit warming to 1.5 °C by 2100, will not avert serious stress and damage to life on Earth (3). Most scientific projections indicate that impacts will continue to intensify for at least another half century before the effects of emissions reductions may begin to be felt (4). These intensified impacts, in turn, will have significant consequences for wildlife (5, 6) and will put many of the benefits people receive from the environment at risk (7), with substantial repercussions for human health and well-being (8). Therefore, in addition to reducing greenhouse gas emissions aggressively, urgent steps are needed to boost the resilience of ecosystems, safeguard their wildlife, and protect their capacity to supply vital goods and services. However, there is still serious underinvestment in environmental protection (9)

marine reserves can mitigate and promote adaptation to

One of the most practical and cost-effective strategies in ocean conservation is the creation of marine protected areas (MPAs). MPAs were originally conceived as a nature-based tool for repairing damage to overexploited fish stocks and habitats and for conserving biodiversity. Several decades of place-based research and meta-analyses (e.g., refs. 10 and 11) reveal that MPAs indeed serve these purposes, although benefits are highly contingent on effective implementation and management (10). One key determinant is the level of protection given. Fully protected areas closed to all other extractive uses and strongly protected areas that are closed to all but limited, low-impact fishing methods, hereafter referred to as “marine reserves,” produce the greatest conservation benefits (10, 12). Only recently, however, has there been interest in understanding the role that MPAs also may play in mitigating and adapting to the impacts of climate change. Most literature on this topic focuses on (i) identifying putative climate change refuges, where ecosystems may be less affected and, by inference, MPAs may be more successful in maintaining present habitats and biodiversity (e.g., ref. 13); (ii) describing how existing MPAs perform under climate-related environmental stresses (e.g., ref. 14); and (iii), based on trajectories of environmental change, exploring how protected area networks may be designed best to accommodate the effects of climate change, i.e., how they can continue baseline functioning (e.g., ref. 15). Here we consider how the act of protection itself may enhance the biological processes that underpin adaptation and resilience, for the benefit of both the protected ecosystem and the people that depend on it. We also consider how the development of extensive MPA networks can help mitigate climate change through the multiplication of biological responses to protection

Under the Convention on Biological Diversity and Sustainable Development Goal 14, coastal nations have committed to protecting 10% of their waters by 2020, but at the present rate most will fall short of this target (16). As of 2015, only 3.5% of the oceans were afforded or promised some protection, with 1.6% strongly or fully protected (12) (although recent designations and promises for protection have increased this percentage). Nonetheless, if protection is weak or not enforced, the expected benefits will be fewer or may not materialize (10). Recent research also suggests that the target should be raised to at least 30% coverage for MPAs to safeguard marine ecosystems in the long term (17). Therefore there is an opportunity to accelerate the implementation of effective MPAs as part of an integrated strategy of climate change mitigation and adaptation, essentially aligning United Nations targets for biodiversity protection and emissions reduction

Any discussion about the future application and expanded value of MPAs must recognize the rich, constructive, and fast-growing literature examining the weaknesses and limitations of MPAs. These dialogues have gone so far as to ask whether even the best MPAs can deliver benefits under climate change, or whether they are a distraction and managers instead should concentrate on promoting human adaptation to rapidly changing conditions. There is considerable disquiet in parts of the scientific community on this point. Potential shortcomings of MPAs include, prominently, lack of staff, equipment and funding (18); inadequate consultation with and support from local communities (19); concerns about managing displaced fishing effort, if such occurs (20); and insufficiencies in management scope (21). Such limitations are real and need to be acknowledged by managers contemplating the use of MPAs. However, there is also a counterbalancing literature (e.g., refs. 22 and 23) that explores approaches to increase success, because all these problems are all soluble. For MPAs to be an effective tool in addressing the impacts of climate change, it is clear we must get better at consistently creating effective, well-managed, socially conscious, and sustainably resourced sites

marine reserves can mitigate and promote adaptation to

Marine managers and scientists also have opened a healthy dialogue, pointing out that MPAs alone cannot meet global targets for marine biodiversity management and that sound fisheries management practices will also be required in the 70–90% of ocean that is likely to remain open to fishing in the medium term (20). As anthropogenic stresses increase, such portfolio approaches to management are prudent. Questions also have been raised about whether there are limitations in the marine systems that MPAs can best serve. Tropical coral reefs, for example, are one of the most climate-vulnerable ecosystems on the planet because of the extreme sensitivity of the coral–zooxanthellae symbiosis (6, 24). Corals inside marine reserves have received scant protection from extreme seawater-warming events (25, 26). Even for coral reefs, however, there is substantial evidence that protection (e.g., from fishing or in the form of nutrient pollution reduction) can decrease the sensitivity of corals to warming (27), facilitate recovery following climate-related disturbance such as floods or bleaching (28⇓–30), and promote larger fish stocks that can help sustain fisheries as conditions change (10, 11). In the case of vulnerable seagrass meadows, such as the Mediterranean Posidonia oceanica, which are projected to decline with warming (31), protection from anthropogenic pressures such as anchoring disturbance and nutrient inputs should slow decline (32). It is likely, however, that only climate change mitigation consistent with the more ambitious goals of the Paris Agreement will safeguard this key habitat-forming species (31)

While maintaining a constructive and clear view of these limitations of MPAs, in the remainder of this paper we explore the potential strengths and weaknesses of well-managed marine reserves in climate change adaptation and mitigation based on documented responses of marine ecosystems to protection. We also examine how such values may influence the well-being of coastal human populations. We divide our discussion into two major parts: (i) an examination of the role of marine reserves in helping marine ecosystems and people adapt to five key predicted impacts of climate change: acidification, sea-level rise, intensification of storms, shifts in species distribution, and decreased productivity and oxygen availability, as well as the cumulative effects of these stressors, and (ii) an evaluation of how marine reserves may help reduce or slow (mitigate) the advance of climate change by promoting carbon sequestration and storage and acting as an insurance policy against climate change (Fig. 1). Finally, we briefly discuss marine reserve size and coverage and the broader context of marine management

Oceans have absorbed approximately one-third of human CO2 emissions (1), with the result that surface layers have become 26% more acidic, on average, since preindustrial times (5). Acidity is expected to increase by 100% or more by 2100 under a business-as-usual scenario (5). Experimental, theoretical, and geological evidence indicates that acidification is a major threat to marine ecosystems (32, 33). Field evidence for changes in calcification as a result of acidification is still limited, but variable responses are likely as a result of interactions between temperature and acidification (34). Nonetheless, declines have been measured in planktonic and reef-building taxa such as molluscs, coccolithophores, corals, and some calcareous algae (35)

marine reserves can mitigate and promote adaptation to

Coastal wetlands (mangroves, seagrasses, salt marshes) contain marine plants with high photosynthetic rates which engineer localized reductions in CO2 concentrations, thereby raising pH and offering daytime refugia to vulnerable calcifying organisms (e.g., refs. 36 and 37). These ecosystems are highly threatened and have undergone rapid losses (38). Wetland protection is a major aim of many marine reserves, and their establishment has gone a long way to protect these systems from human activities such as coastal development or conversion to aquaculture (e.g., ref. 39)

Marine reserves can also help rebuild to high abundance teleost fish populations that play a significant role in the marine inorganic carbon cycle. Teleost fish drink seawater for osmoregulation and precipitate almost all the ingested calcium and some ingested magnesium as carbonate minerals in their alkaline intestine, excreting high-magnesium calcite crystals from their gut (40). Such fish carbonates dissolve at shallower depths than the calcite and aragonite produced by marine calcifiers such as coccolithophores, foraminifera, and corals (41). Near-surface dissolution of fish carbonates raises alkalinityCaCO3+CO2+H2O⇔2HCO-3+Ca2+[1]and has a more immediate impact on surface pH and buffering of seawater than calcite or aragonite. The accumulation of high-magnesium calcite in shelf sediments [a large proportion of which derives from fish (e.g., ref. 42)] could act as a first line of defense against the reduced saturation state caused by acidification (43)

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