tangible benefits small salt stone crusher for sale in sri lanka

tangible benefits small salt stone crusher for sale in sri lanka

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Indigenous and traditional foods of Sri Lanka inherit a long history and unique traditions continued from several thousands of years. Sri Lankan food tradition is strongly inter-wound with the nutritional, health-related, and therapeutic reasoning of the food ingredients and the methods of preparation. The diverse culinary traditions and preparations reflect multipurpose objectives combining in-depth knowledge of flora and fauna in relation to human well-being and therapeutic health benefits. Trans-generational knowledge dissemination related to indigenous and traditional food is now limited due to changing lifestyles, dwindling number of knowledge holders, and shrinking floral and faunal resources. Awareness on the relationship between non-communicable diseases and the diet has garnered the focus on traditional ingredients and foods by the consumers and major food producers in Sri Lanka. This review presents concise details on the indigenous and traditional foods of Sri Lanka, with scientific analysis when possible

Indigenous and traditional foods of Sri Lanka present a perfect blend of cultural diversity with human wisdom that has been evolved through generations in establishing a cultural heritage and an identity. In the Sri Lankan culture, food is treated with the highest gratitude, respect, and generosity, expressed by sharing and offering to fellow humans, animals as well as the divine powers. Sri Lankans love to share foods with neighbors, family, and friends; house visits are always accompanied with bundles of food items. Some foods and the preparation know-how are specialties of the locality. Trans-generational knowledge transmission of food and food ingredients is inter-woven with regular maintenance of healthy life, cultural legacy, and religious concepts of the ethnicities of the land and have been the key to sustain a traditional food culture in Sri Lanka; evidence are found in written literal work and archeological sources as well as folklore

indigenous and traditional foods of sri lanka | journal of

Archeological findings, ancient travelers’ records, and early world maps are living evidence for the significance of this island in geo-politics and sea trade since ancient times. Elements of Afro-Arabic, Central Asian, European, South-east Asian, and Oriental food cultures that followed with the trade activities, royal marriages, and invasions have been customized to align with the habits, the culture, and the palate of island inhabitants while keeping the indigenous and traditional food culture in a nutshell. A significant geographic differentiation can be seen in traditional foods aligning with the eco- and biodiversity of the island. Indigenous and Ayurveda medicine holds a strong base and provides recommendations with clear and defined identity on the ingredients, preparation methods, and consumption in order to maintain a healthy life while preventing and treating major diseases and minor ailments. Traditionally, the primary knowledge holders are the community elders (both male and female) and indigenous medical practitioners who are well versed about the local flora and fauna, their medicinal values, and the ingredients and preparations

The present review describes the essentials of indigenous and traditional foods of Sri Lanka, for the first time, providing a perspective analysis in science, technology, and nutrition of food and preparations when possible. Ancient texts and books written on Sri Lanka by various authors and other published media and discussions with different individuals holding traditional knowledge were consulted in generating this condensed review

Geo-positioning and climate of the country are highly relevant to the available food sources and existence of various food traditions. Sri Lanka is a tropical island positioned between 5° 55' and 9° 51' North latitudes and 79° 42' and 81° 53' East longitudes in the south of the Indian peninsula. The island and area of 65,610 km2 bears distinguishable elevation (Fig. 1a; central highlands, plains, and the coastal belt), rainfall (Fig. 1b; wet, intermediate, and dry zones), and vegetation (Fig. 1c; closed rainforest, more open intermediate tropical forest, and open grassland) zones [1]. The terrain of the island is mostly low, flat to rolling plains with mountains in the South-central area. The island coastline is 1,340 km long and inland water bodies cover 2,905 km2. Several offshore islands account for 342 km2 area. The island receives monsoonal, convectional, and depressional rains annually, with < 900 mm in the driest areas (North-western and South-eastern regions) to > 5000 mm in the wettest areas (Western slopes and Central highlands). Mean annual temperature (MAT) varies between 26.5 °C and 28.5 °C, with the altitudes > 1800 m marking MAT of 15.9 °C, and the coldest temperatures in January and the warmest temperatures in April and August [2]. Of the total land area, ~ 19% is arable, and agriculture accounts for ~ 44% of the workforce and 12% of the GDP [3].

Maps of Sri Lanka showing a Elevation map based on Digital Elevation Model, b Precipitation map showing Wet Zone, Intermediate Zone, and Dry Zone, and c Vegetation map ([1], with permission). Black circles in the maps indicate archeological and paleo-environmental sites of the island covered in the studies of reference [1]. Sri Lanka, formerly known as Ceylon is an island in the Indian Ocean, South-east of Indian subcontinent. Island terrain is primarily low, flat to rolling plain with mountains in the South-central interior. Island’s climate is tropical monsoon. The mountains and the South-western part of the country (wet zone) receive annual average rainfall of 2500 mm and the South-east, East and Northern parts of the country (dry zone) receive between 1200 and 1900 mm of rain annually. The arid North-west and South-east coasts receive the least amount of rain, 600 to 1200 mm per year. There is strong evidence of prehistoric settlements in Sri Lanka that goes back to ~ 125,000 BP

indigenous and traditional foods of sri lanka | journal of

Crucial positioning in the middle of the Indian Ocean and to the extreme south of the Indian Peninsula together with the protective natural harbors and, floral and faunal richness have been the key elements that attracted many global travelers, explorers, and trading nations to this island. Ancient maps and manuscripts account the importance of harbor towns and cities of the island. The map by Claudius Ptolemy (second century CE) was the first to provide absolute co-ordinates of specific locations of the island. Many names referred by various nations identify this island: Taprobane (Greek), Serendib (Persian, Arabic), Simhaladvipah (Sanskrit), Ceilão (Portuguese), Ceylon (English), Thambapanni (Mahavamsa) and since 1972 the country declared Sri Lanka (Sinhala) or Ilankei (Tamil)

The pre-historic man of Sri Lanka is known as the Balangoda Man (Homo sapiens balangodensis) belonging to the Pleistocene/Holocene epoch boundary in the geo-chronological scale [4], in which the Mesolithic period of archeological timescale coincides. The oldest human fossil evidence in South Asia (~ 45,000 to 38,000 calibrated years before present) were found in the rock shelters and caves scattered in all ecoregions of the island (Fig. 1a, b, and c) [1, 5,6,7,8]. The archeo-zoological and archeo-botanical evidence along with the microlithic and osseous tools and other artifacts found in these rock shelters indicate that the nutritional needs of these early human inhabitants have been supported by a number of sources [1, 5,6,7]. These include a variety of small and large animals and plant sources found above and below ground, and in the aquatic environments. Material evidence dating back to 2700 BCE support the involvement of pre-historic inhabitants in plant material processing, plant domestication, and pottery manufacturing, and the transition from forager, hunter-gatherer to agricultural, a more sedentary lifestyle [1, 5, 8, 9]

The Veddā (a.k.a. Aadi Vaasin, Wanniyala-eththo) is a group of people with indigenous ancestry, ~ 10,000 in number now, and confined to inland isolated pockets extending from the Eastern and North-eastern slopes of the hill country and the Eastern and North-central parts of the country [10]. They inherit an ancient culture that values the interdependency of social, economic, environmental, and spiritual systems. The Great Genealogy/Dynasty or Mahāvaṃsa, an ancient non-canonical text written in the fifth century CE on the Kings of Sri Lanka (the first version covers from 543 BCE to 304 CE) records Veddā’s origin dating back to the fifth to the sixth century BCE. Recent studies show that Veddā is genetically distinct from other populations in Sri Lanka [11,12,13] and most likely descends from early Homo sapiens who roamed the island. Hunting has been the mainstay of this group and skills still remain, using bow and arrows to hunt forest animals [14] and aquatic fish species that satisfy the animal protein supply. The hunter-gatherer lifestyle that Veddā subsisted on has now partly been replaced; they engage in crop cultivation to supplement grains and vegetables for food

indigenous and traditional foods of sri lanka | journal of

Traditionally, the Veddā group prepares meat and fish by direct roasting over wood fire, covering with hot ashes or smoking, and drying on a wooden rack [15, 16]. Excess hunt is sun-dried or smoked to preserve for rainy seasons. Harvesting honey of various forest insects is a regular task and a group activity. Honey is for direct consumption and for meat preservation [17]. A sausage-like product, “Perume,” is an energy- and nutrient-dense preserved form of meat. Alternative layers of meat and fat consist this product with variations depending on the animal type (deer, venison) and parts (monitor lizard tail stuffed with fat from the sides of the animal, or clotted blood). Boneless game meat, roasted rice (Oryza sativa) flour, green chili (Capsicum annuum), cumin (Cuminum cyminum), coriander (Coriandrum sativum), and leaves of Asamodagam (Trachyspermum roxburghianum) are formed into balls, batter coated with rice flour and deep fried in Bassia longifolia seed oil to make “Mas guli” or “Kurakkal.” Present-day Veddā’s food reflects the use of condiments, spices, herbs, salt, and lime juice similar to making curries. Changing laws in the country that ensures conservation and sustainability of wildlife has limited the hunting lifestyle and the food sources of Veddā group

Tubers and yams of forest origin mainly Dioscorea species (D. spicata, D. pentaphylla, and D. oppositifolia) and less often Aracea plants (e.g., Arisaema leschenaultii) roasted over direct fire is a carbohydrate source of the Veddā’s diet. Cultivated cereals such as rice, finger millet (Eleusine coracana), and maize (Zea mays) made into flour is for unleavened flatbread (Roti) or thick boiled flour paste (Thalapa) that accompany cooked smoked meat with gravy (Ānama) [18, 19]. When available, cereal flours are supplemented with cycad (Cycas circinalis) seed flour (sliced, dried, and ground) or Bassia longifolia flowers (dried and ground) for Roti and Thalapa. Various herbs, leafy vegetables, and unripe fruits of gourds and melons having medicinal and therapeutic properties are part of the regular diet. Among these, leaves of Cassia tora, Ipomoea cymosa, and Memecyclon umbellatum; ripe wild tree fruits and berries such as Mangifera zeylanica, Nephelium longana, Hemicyclia sepiaria, Manikkara hexandra, Terminalia belerica, and Dialium ovoideum; and wild mushrooms are integral. Transgenerational knowledge transfer on traditional systems for sourcing and sustainable harvesting practices of food, converting into safer ingredients (e.g., ways to reduce toxins and undesirable compounds while improving palatability, digestion, and safety), and effective preservation technologies has enabled harmonic balance between human-forest environment while sustaining nutrition and health status of the Veddā group

Sri Lanka has a continuous written history. Stone scripts as early as ~ 250 BCE, ancient texts together with remaining palm (Ōla) leaf texts evidence the knowledge on sophisticated agricultural practices and food preparations that appreciate intricacies of health and nutrition basis of foods. Archeological and documentary evidence found in Sri Lanka support continuous inward migration and convergence of various foreign nations ensuring trade, governing power, and diplomatic relations resulting in multiethnic nature of the foods and food traditions of the island

indigenous and traditional foods of sri lanka | journal of

The first recorded food-related hospitality is described in Mahāvaṃsa (Chapter VII), about a special incidence happened in fifth century BCE, between the noblewoman Kuweni and Indian prince Vijaya and crew. This Aryan language–speaking group of 700 from Northern India landed in the north-west coast of the island (coinciding with the passing away of lord Gautama Buddha) was served with special rice preparations, sweets made from rice, rice flour, jaggery (a traditional sweetener [20]), honey, and a variety of local fruits [21,22,23]. Reintroduction of Buddhism in third century BCE (250 to 207 BCE) and subsequent invasions, occupancies, royal marriages between foreign nations had a profound impact and significant contribution to the island food culture. Several nations including, Arabic, Roman, Oriental, Central Asian, and Indian in the early centuries for internal and foreign trade, and the domination of three European nations (Portuguese, Dutch, and English) in the island governance since 1505 AD had profound influence on Sri Lankan culinary tradition and style. Buddhism and Hinduism that existed since ancient times with the later introduction of Islam and Christianity influenced the religious aspects of food culture, traditions, and taboos. Low consumption of meat, particularly beef, even today may have a religious influence. Similar to the cultural practices and languages, all these foreign influences enriched Sri Lankan food culture than taking presidency over in converting to a microcosm of another culture or a nation

Ingredients and preparation processes of traditional Sri Lankan foods have a strong relationship with maintenance of general health and prevention of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) of the consumer in addition to providing required nutrition. Today, the deeply rooted indigenous medical system (Hela Wedakam since the time of multi-talented local ruler Rāvana, time unknown) co-exists with the Ayurvedic since pre-Aryan civilization (Siddha and Unani) and the Western medical system introduced during the colonial era. Although taste and appeal are the key, the indigenous medical system emphasizes the use of ingredients and preparations that suit general wellbeing, physiological condition, involved activities, and disease conditions of the consumer, and the environment and climate of the consuming location as primary considerations. Indigenous medicine–based healing system focuses on mental and physical fitness simultaneously, bearing some similarities with Ayurveda but diverges in practice and constituents. Maintaining harmony between the human being and nature and integration of foods that nature provides in keeping the balance of bodily systems are the fundamentals of the indigenous medical system. Avoidance of extremes and selective use of opposites of “hot/heaty” and “cold/cooling” foods is embedded in indigenous and Ayurveda systems [24]

Being a predominantly agrarian society, food culture and traditions in Sri Lanka have evolved with the cultivated crops, daily activities, beliefs and the seasonal nature of food sources. A typical traditional meal comprises a carbohydrate source/s (grains or grain products, tubers, or starchy fruit) and accompaniments providing protein, lipids, fiber, and micronutrients. Protein sources are animal or plant (e.g., cashew nut, Anacadia occidentalis) based and lipids are mainly from plants, especially from coconut (Cocos nucifera) or sesame (Sesamum indicum). A variety of fruits, pods, seeds, leaves, tubers, stems, and flowers of native plants are included in the meal as various preparations. Ripe local fruits, buffalo milk curd with a sweetener, and simple sweetmeats are the common dessert options. A “Chew of Betel” comprised of betel leaves (Piper betle) and arica nuts (Areca catechu) with tropical aromatic spices such as cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) finishes the traditional meal. The diverse nature of sources and preparations makes the plate of a Sri Lankan meal comprised of a range of colors, tastes, and flavors. When eating food, usually fingers are used, particularly the right hand. Each bite of food is a mix of all food items in the plate that is squeezed well and mixed with fingers to combine all flavors and tastes

indigenous and traditional foods of sri lanka | journal of

Rice is the staple and the main carbohydrate source of Sri Lankan diet since ancient days. Cultivation of paddy and production of rice has been central to societal, cultural, religious, and economic activities of the island [17, 25]. The Cascade Tank-Village System of Sri Lanka is a recognized Globally Important Agricultural Heritage System that provides water needs for water-intensive rice cultivation securing food supply and creating a resilient ecosystem while preserving biodiversity and associated traditional knowledge [18, 26]

The indica varieties of rice are the primarily cultivated types in Sri Lanka. Among the traditional rice varieties, eating quality traits and grain milling characteristics, e.g., small round grains, thin long grains, pigmented (red-brown), fragrant, etc. are equally important considerations as agronomic performances. The low-protein levels (average value of 7.7% compared with 12.4% in traditional rice varieties) and high glycemic index (GI) [27] of modern rice varieties is a concern because of the considerable daily intake. In 2016, the per capita consumption of rice including rice-based products was ~ 114 kg per year providing 45% total caloric and 40% total protein requirement of a Sri Lankan [28]. Increasing science-based evidence and awareness of health benefits of the major and minor nutrients of traditional rice varieties have boosted production of indigenous varieties making them available for the average consumer [27, 29]

Processing of paddy into edible rice grains, once a household task, is now an industrial operation. Unpolished rice and red-pigmented rice are considered superior in health benefits since ancient times. Parboiling has been in practice since time unknown and can be done for indica varieties. Boiling in water allowing grains to absorb all or rarely draining excess water out makes rice ready for consumption. Simple additives besides salt, vegetable oil, and ghee, turmeric (Curcuma longa), curry leaves (Murraya koenigii), rampe leaves (Pandanus amaryllifolius), cardamom, and/or nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) are cooked with rice depending on the choice of the consumer. These additives bring color, aroma, and flavor to rice while impregnating with water-soluble components having antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Complex rice preparations include incorporation of different fat types, dairy products, coconut milk, honey, vegetables, and fruits. These practices essentially enhance nutrient density, flavor, and taste of cooked rice; such are central in festivities, religious, and spiritual offerings. A meal portion of warm cooked rice with the accompanying curries, salads, and chutneys when wrapped in mildly withered (on direct heat to be pliable) banana (Musa spp.) leaves infuses leafy aroma to the content. This traditional meal presentation is common for packing meals and adorned by all regardless of age or social status

indigenous and traditional foods of sri lanka | journal of

Milk rice is a specialty in Sri Lankan food culture (Table 1, Fig. 2a). This preparation of non-parboiled rice cooked with coconut milk (rarely with dairy) can be a regular meal item adored by consumers of all ages and social levels. Milk rice of various forms takes a central place in the traditional ceremonies, devotions, and festivities. Elaborative milk rice preparations include the addition of mung bean or green gram (Vigna radiata) (Fig. 2b; cereal-pulse blends complement in improving essential amino acid profile and recommended by the FAO), sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) jaggery, or grated coconut infused with concentrated sap of palm inflorescence (treacle) [22, 30].

Starchy staples of traditional Sri Lankan food items and meals are based on cereals, pulses and/or tubers. Some of the preparations do not show locality dependence but alternative cereals to rice is used according to abundance of the growing areas. A meal is comprised of a main food item and accompaniments which are usually paired with the food product. Accompaniments could be hot-savory and/or sweet. Fresh coconut kernel is used in a variety of ways mixed with cereal flour or in preparation of the accompaniments. a Milk rice with accompanying Lunumiris, b Milk rice with mung bean accompanied with Lunumiris, c Diyabath preparation, d Thalapa made of finger millet flour, e Roti made of rice and finger millet flour with Lunumiris, f String hoppers or Indiáppa with Sambōla, g Laveriya- sweetened string hoppers, h Plain Hoppers or Āppa, i Pittu made of red rice flour, j Boiled chickpea with fresh scraped coconut, k Boiled mung bean with Lunumiris, l Boiled cassava roots with fresh scraped coconut and Lunumiris

Certain rice preparations are household remedies for various ailments. Leftover cooked rice of the previous night (no refrigeration) without reheating is a highly favored breakfast item that delays hunger. Diyabath made with leftover cooked rice (Table 1, Fig. 2c) can lower gastric acidity [31]. Mixing fresh cow’s milk or curdled water buffalo milk with cooked rice enhances medicinal value and consumed by the locals where such milk products are abundant. A porridge-style or gruel preparation of roasted, non-parboiled rice is an easily digestible, energy-dense food for individuals recovering from any sickness (Fig. 3a). Although indica rice varieties have high amylose content (23–31%) in starch that resists digestion and pose low GI, longer cooking time, and excess water in porridge preparation can result in a high degree of starch gelatinization that increases digestibility [32]. Rice porridge can be enriched with protein and fat of coconut milk, sweetened with palm jaggery or treacle, or spiced with onion (Allium cepa), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), and garlic (Allium sativum), with or without various pulverized/juiced green leaves having medicinal value (Fig. 3b). Even today, the green leaves popular for porridges are Aerva lantana, Asparagus racemosus, Cardiospermum halicacabum, Centella asiatica, and Vernonia cineria which are known for their medicinal and therapeutic value in providing blood sugar controlling, anti-inflammatory, and/or blood-purifying effects according to indigenous and Ayurveda medical systems.

indigenous and traditional foods of sri lanka | journal of

Beverages based on leaves, flowers, stems, bark or root of plants and trees that are known for various health benefits are part of traditional foods of Sri Lanka. A creamy, smooth porridge-style beverage is prepared with cooked cereals or cereal flours and with fresh coconut milk and pulverized plant materials or their water extract. Herbal teas are prepared as water infusion or by boiling with water. Usually, herbal beverages are accompanied with palm jaggery. Herbal beverages prepared with cereals could be a breakfast meal due to their caloric-richness. Water infusions and extracts are consumed as herbal teas in any time of the day. a Plain rice porridge, b Rice porridge made with extract of plant leaves or Kola Kenda, c Porridge made with finger millet flour, d Herbal tea made with flowers of bael fruit

The recipes and notes maintained by chef clans for royal families of pre-colonial era show the use of various vegetable oils and animal fats in rice preparations. The sacred food offering to the Temple of Tooth Relic in Sri Lanka includes a wide range of traditional food items about 32 in number at a time, which is an honorable task these chef clans performed and still maintained [33]. Present-day rice preparations in Sri Lanka reflect the influence of several ethnic cultures. Mixing cooked rice with tempered vegetables, especially carrots, leeks, and green peas, and garnishes such as cashew, raisins, meat, and egg in making fried rice could be a convergence of British and Oriental food preferences. Biriyani-style rice of Northern or Central Asian culinary tradition remains with a selection of spices and oil (vegetable oil replaces ghee) that are preferable to the local palate. The Lamprais is rice cooked with flavored oil and lumped together with shellfish-based fried chutney, curried plantains, and meat (poultry, beef, or mutton) and has Dutch influence

Traditionally, rice flour is prepared either by pounding grains (dehusked grains soaked and drained) in a wooden or stone mortar with a wooden pestle or grinding between two flat stone slabs which is now replaced by commercial-scale flour mills or home-scale electric grinders. Flour particle size is controlled by sieving with different mesh sizes

indigenous and traditional foods of sri lanka | journal of

Gruels (Thalapa, Kanji; Fig. 2d), unleavened flatbreads (Roti; Fig. 2e), string hoppers (Indiāppa; Fig. 2f), hoppers (Āppa; Fig. 2h), and Pittu (Fig. 2i) that are made primarily from rice flour comprise the main meal item in the traditional diet and consumed with suitable accompaniments (Table 1). Flours of other grains and plant materials are combined depending on the product. Some of these food products are found in the South Indian food traditions. Mild fermentation, heat denaturation, and/or gelatinization of starch and protein of grain flours [34, 35] during steaming (moist–heat treatment) of the wet pastes or roasting of flour slurries create the unique structures, textures, and tastes of these products

Grains of finger- (Eleusine coracana), proso- (Panicum miliaceum), foxtail- (Setaria italica), and kodo- (Papsalum scorbiculatum) millets and maize are primarily converted into flour for various products (Figs. 2b, d, e, j, k and 3c, Table 1). Boiled maize cob is a popular snacking item and now a street food. Incorporation of wheat flour to the Sri Lankan food culture may be since the Portuguese invasion, now a sought-after ingredient for many flour-based foods [19]. Depending on the availability, flours of cycad seeds or Bassia longifolia dry flower supplement the grain flour. Hypocholesterolemic and hypoglycemic effects of cycad seed flour have been reported [36]. Water lily (Nymphaea pubescens) seeds harvested from large water bodies where they grow naturally are prepared similar to rice and prescribed for diabetic patients [37]

Mung bean and black gram (Vigna mungo) are common in rain-fed Chena cultivation (slash-and-burn cultivation method) and contribute to traditional diet and food products. Cowpea or black-eyed peas (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp), white or red skin, was popularized during the Green Revolution for intercropping. Horse gram (Macrotyloma uniflorum) has well-recognized medicinal properties [38] and included in meals in various ways. Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) whole or split (dhal) is for curries and fried/roasted snacks. Chick pea (Cicer arietinum, both Kabuli and Desi) and lentil (Lens culinaris, red and green, Mysoor dhal) have been introduced after 1977 through the trade relationships with India [39]. Boiled whole grain pulses garnished with salt, coconut pieces, red chilies, and/or onion makes a simple meal (Fig. 2j, k). Curried red lentil has become a necessity in present-day Sri Lankan meals without limits of consumer income, type of occasion, or the social class. In 2011, lentil comprised > 70% of the average monthly per capita consumption of pulses amounting to 671 g/person/month [40]

indigenous and traditional foods of sri lanka | journal of

Various preparations of animal and plant sources accompany the carbohydrate staple of the traditional meal. These accompaniments are prepared as a thin gravy (Hodda), sour curry (Ambula), thick gravy (Niyambalāwa), mildly cooked salad (Malluma), deep fried (Thel Beduma), or dry roasted (Kabale Beduma). Coconut milk, grated coconut, coconut (or sesame) oil, and a variety of herbs and spices are essential ingredients in these preparations [17]. Some of these accompaniments are paired with main meal items. For example, milk rice goes well with Lunumiris, and Sambōla with boiled tubers or jack fruit. Similarly, some of the food items have preferred meal of the day, and physiology or health condition of the consumer depending on the health attributes of the source material, e.g., mung bean usually does not accompany the nighttime meal or a person suffering from the common cold

Various herbs and spices add flavor while prolonging product shelf life. Almost all the herbs and spices used in traditional Sri Lankan cooking have reported antifungal, antimicrobial, bacteriostatic, fungicidal and/or fungistatic properties, or pH-lowering ability and medicinal value such as anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic [41, 42]

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