high end environmental glass high efficiency concentrator sell in philippines

high end environmental glass high efficiency concentrator sell in philippines

At Marvin, we approach materials differently, holding ourselves to the highest standards for material selection, sourcing, and development. Marvin’s window and door materials—wood, extruded aluminum, High-Density Fiberglass and Ultrex® fiberglass each offer unique benefits. If you’re not sure what’s best for your project or your climate, a Marvin window and door dealer can help recommend the material with the right attributes

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Hot Crushing Plant Brief Introduction

We are a professional mining machinery manufacturer, the main equipment including: jaw crusher, cone crusher and other sandstone equipment;Ball mill, flotation machine, concentrator and other beneficiation equipment; Powder Grinding Plant, rotary dryer, briquette machine, mining, metallurgy and other related equipment.If you are interested in our products or want to visit the nearby production site, you can click the button to consult us.

Offering a rich, warm look, many customization options, and design versatility, wood is a premium choice. Wood can be used on both the interior and exterior of a window or door. As a lower maintenance option, wood can also be used on only the interior with an extruded aluminum cladding exterior. Marvin offers both options, leading the industry in sourcing, processing, and utilizing high quality wood

We know that the key to designing products the right way means understanding how wood behaves in different situations, and how we can harness its benefits. We have committed to employing materials experts, including advanced degree wood scientists who undergo annual training and wood specification-based education to help us design effectively with wood and educate building professionals about how to best use it

window and door materials | marvin

Extruded aluminum is used on window and door exteriors to provide additional protection and minimize maintenance compared to an all-wood window. Aluminum can either be extruded or roll-formed, and the difference in strength can be compared to an industrial chair versus an inexpensive lawn chair. Extruded aluminum is used for cladding because of its strength and weather resistance. It’s important to remember that clad windows and doors are different from products that have all-aluminum frames, which are typically less energy-efficient than the alternatives

A significant benefit of extruded aluminum on the exteriors of windows and doors is their low maintenance durability that doesn’t require repainting during the product’s lifetime. We are committed to meeting the highest industry standards for color retention and chalk resistance, and our extruded aluminum finish maintains its shape and stands up to the elements years after installation—protected by our 20-year warranty.

Marvin’s extruded aluminum meets the highest American Architectural Manufacturers Association (AAMA) 2605 standard, which requires 10 years of color retention and chalk resistance. We also offer a 20-year warranty on clad finish against loss of adhesion, chalking, or fading.*

Marvin's aluminum cladding goes through a five-step pre-treatment process, which promotes excellent adhesion of the factory-applied, 70% PVDF fluoropolymer paint finish. Thanks to precision cutting and fabrication processes, extruded aluminum can also fit a range of profile widths, including applications that call for extremely wide casing profiles or historic profiles

window and door materials | marvin

A material with a high concentration of fiberglass and a strong resin, High-Density Fiberglass is a revolutionary material that echoes the look of other modern materials but with better thermal efficiency. In our Signature Modern collection, High-Density Fiberglass is used on the exterior of the windows and doors, while the interior is finished in a strong aluminum with a low-gloss finish

We believe that modern windows and doors should perform better, so we developed a High-Density Fiberglass and patent-pending frame design for our Signature Modern collection that reimagines how products in this size and style can perform. From exterior to interior, a solid piece of High-Density Fiberglass forms our unique new frame, which requires no additional material to aid in its thermal performance–a departure from our thermally broken competitors. Finished seamlessly to the interior with aluminum, we’re able to deliver exceptional thermal performance to enable strength at large sizes while preserving desirably narrow sight lines

Ultrex® pultruded fiberglass, a material Marvin created over 20 years ago, was one of the first premium composite materials on the market. With its very low conductivity, fiberglass is one of the best insulators among window-frame materials. It shrinks and expands at the same rate as glass, making its air-seals as durable as the rest of the unit, and its longterm stability also ensures that fiberglass windows will operate like new for decades to come. Marvin offers two options for our pultruded fiberglass windows: all fiberglass (Essential) and fiberglass-clad wood (Elevate) that offers the warm look of real wood on the interior of the home

window and door materials | marvin

Not all composite materials are created equal. Some companies use materials like sawdust and vinyl to produce a composite material whose components have fundamentally different properties and performance values. Others use a manufacturing process that makes the materials more vulnerable to the adverse effects of hot temperatures

For example, most plastics and vinyls are made using thermoplastic methods, which simply melt the material, pour it into a form and allow it to harden. When thermoplastic materials are then re-heated in the sun, they begin to re-melt. When it comes to products like windows and doors, this can mean that the product, especially in hot climates, begins to misfit the opening, making it hard to open and close, or that the seals become compromised in a relatively short period of time

On the other hand, our pultruded fiberglass is a thermoset material created through a chemical process that changes the product at the molecular level. It is fundamentally more than the sum of its parts by the end of the manufacturing process. Made by saturating cables of fiberglass with resins, heating them until the two materials become one and then allowing the new material to cure, a thermoset fiberglass composite like Ultrex won’t soften or melt when exposed to environmental temperatures

window and door materials | marvin

multicrystalline silicon cell - an overview

During the preparation of multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) cells different crystal orientations as well as the region between the grains which has an extremely high density of lattice defects and accumulates impurities causes inhomogeneous chemical surface treatment and different doping conditions during diffusion steps. In the final solar cells especially the grain boundaries exhibit unwanted electrical characteristics. They tend to have a high concentration of electrically active defects which cause high recombination for minority carriers thus reducing the collection efficiency of light generated carriers [1, 2]. Furthermore grain boundaries often act as potential barriers for majority carriers which introduces an additional contribution to internal power losses of the solar cell [3]. Therefore cells of mc-Si suffer from lower conversion efficiencies and batches of cells have larger dispersion of the electrical parameter compared with monocrystalline Si cells. In order to minimize grain boundary effects on the solar cell performance electrically active defects are passivated by the introduction of atomic hydrogen frequently in combination with a thermal treatment to getter metallic impurities [4]. Recently an other approach to minimize efficiency losses due to grain boundary effects was suggested [5]. The metal grid of the front contact of a mc-Si solar cell was applied mainly above grain boundaries. Two effects were expected to take place. First the shadowing of grains with high light generated photocurrent densities is suppressed. Second the series resistance is lowered due to a reduction of current paths across grain boundaries. Previously a statistically elaborated study reported an increase of the output power between 2-5 % [6]. Content of the present work is to further improve this method of individually processing mc-Si wafers to solar cells

Currently, the most common solar cells installed are crystalline or multicrystalline silicon cells. Amorphous cells seemed promising a while ago, but have not advanced in terms of efficiency or cost. Various photoelectrochemical cells based on dye sensitizing by use of metal complexes or organic dyes have been manufactured but found unreliable and of short average lifetime. The same is true for cells using organic polymers or fullerenes to increase the electron-transfer effective surface area. Scientific journals and magazines contain a flow of articles on new wonder-cells, none of which have so far made it beyond the laboratory. More serious alternatives to silicon in conventional two or more layer cells include CdTe cells and combinations of chemical group 13-15 (III-V in old notation), such as GaAs. Some of these have higher negative impacts than silicon cells, due to smaller global material abundance or to material toxicity

Manufacture of solar cells involves several chemical and physical processes that may give rise to health and accident risks as well as pollution, and that require input of energy. Ideally, recycling can reduce the environmental impacts, but in return it needs additional energy use. Currently, few schemes for solar panel recycling are in place. Pollution can be reduced by avoiding emissions to air, wastewater, or soil in manufacturing plants, and by proper handling of decommissioned cells. However, experience with solar cell recycling plants and other end-of-life technologies is not yet available

multicrystalline silicon cell - an overview

The manufacturing process has changed since the early solar cells were marketed. Microprocessor scrap is no longer used as silicon raw material, but a less refined stock of “solar-cell-grade” silicon forms the starting point for photovoltaic cell production. This grade of silicon is much less expensive than the microprocessor grade, but more expensive than the former cost of the microprocessor scrap. Multicrystalline cells have today reached a higher market share than monocrystalline cells, and the radiation-to-electricity conversion efficiency has gradually improved. The amorphous cell market is stagnant and the organic cells have left the marketplace after serious lifetime failures. There is still scientific interest in the aforementioned potentially more efficient crystalline cells based on materials other than silicon, eventually using several stacked layers in order to capture more of the range of frequencies present in solar light. In the current marketplace, however, only the CdTe cells have a modest share. They typically have lower efficiency than the silicon cells, but also lower production cost when using thin-film techniques

The field of new materials for hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite solar cells has been dominated by absorber materials based on methyl ammonium lead halide perovskites. Perovskite solar cells have shown remarkable progress in recent years with rapid increases in conversion efficiency of 20%. Perovskite solar cells may offer the potential for an Earth-abundant and low-energy-production solution to truly large-scale manufacturing of PV modules. The application of a solid-state hole transport material and improvements in performance and stability with mixed halide perovskites, improved contact materials, new device architectures, and improved deposition processes has increased the efficiency from the initial 4% to 20%

Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite solar cells have proved to have higher competitive efficiencies and higher performance. Researchers are studying the relevant degradation mechanisms in both the perovskite materials and the contact layers, improved cell durability, and the development of commercial perovskite solar products

multicrystalline silicon cell - an overview

Fig. 3.37A and B shows a hybrid OPV cell, thin film perovskite silicon cell and perovskite silicon tandem cell, respectively. The material has the potential environmental impacts related to the lead-based perovskite absorber. Current efforts are on lead-free perovskite structures to eliminate potential environmental concerns. Perovskite solar cells have very low energy losses, allowing for high open-circuit voltage, and serve as an excellent wide gap absorber in tandem devices with low gap absorbers, such as crystalline or multicrystalline silicon cells. A silicon-based tandem device architecture using a low-cost, high-performance, wide band gap perovskite cell might offer a cost-effective path toward high-efficiency modules. Researchers are presently evaluating wider band gap perovskite absorbers and contact materials for the tunnel junction between the subcells, as well as mechanical tandem architectures. A final challenge lies in scale-up and optimization of the deposition processes for reproducible perovskite solar cell performance. The benefits are

Fig. 3.37. Hybrid organic perovskite solar cells [37] (http://www.energy.gov/eere/sunshot/hybrid-organic-inorganic-halide-perovskite-solar-cells). (A) Thin film perovskite solar cell. (B) Perovskite on silicon tandem solar cell

The majority of residential solar modules consist of PV cells made from either crystalline silicon cells or thin-film semiconductor material. Crystalline silicon cells are further categorized as either monocrystalline silicon cells that offer high efficiencies (13–19%) but are more difficult to manufacture or polycrystalline (also called multicrystalline) silicon cells that have lower efficiencies (9–14%) but are less expensive and easier to manufacture. An example of a monocrystalline PV module is shown in Figure 5.3

multicrystalline silicon cell - an overview

Thin-film solar cells, on the other hand, are manufactured by vaporizing and depositing thin layers of semiconductor material onto substrates, such as glass, ceramic, or metal. Although they absorb light more easily than crystalline silicon cells, they are much less energy production efficient (5–7%). They are, however, less costly to manufacture. The most efficient thin-film solar cells usually have several layers of semiconductor materials, such as gallium arsenide, that convert different wavelengths (i.e., colors) of light into electricity

String ribbon manufactured modules also are available; however, current efficiencies are similar to thin-film modules requiring more surface area to produce the same output as the polycrystalline modules. Research advances in cell efficiency, materials, and methods of manufacturing continue to reduce costs and improve PV modules. The inherent inefficiency of PV modules is due to the fact that many of the electrons that have absorbed some energy from low-energy photons do not hold onto that energy long enough to absorb energy from another photon to free an electron. As a result, energy is lost as heat. To assist in cooling, these module arrays should be supported by framework that raises the entire system 3–6 in off the roof, allowing air to circulate keeping the system cool. An example of a 36 module array representing an 8.64 kW system is shown in Figure 5.4

Given that practical efficiencies of photovoltaic devices are 10–30%, it is natural to think of putting the remaining solar energy to work. This has first been achieved for amorphous cells, which have been integrated into windowpanes, so that at least a part of the energy not absorbed is passed through to the room behind the pane. Of course, conductors and other non-transparent features reduce the transmittance somewhat. The same should be possible for other thin-film photovoltaic materials, including the emerging multicrystalline silicon cells

multicrystalline silicon cell - an overview

Another possibility, particularly for PV panels not serving as windows, is to convert the solar energy not giving rise to electricity into heat (as some of it in actuality already is). One may think of cooling the modules of cells by running pipes filled with water or another suitable substance along their bottom side, carrying the heat to a thermal store, or alternatively by an air flow above the collector (but below a transparent cover layer). The energy available for this purpose is the incoming radiation energy minus the reflected and converted part. Reflection from the back of the semiconductor material, aimed at increasing the path-length of the photons in the material, could be chosen to optimize the value of the combined power and heat production, rather than only the power production. A hybrid photovoltaic and thermal device is called a PVT panel. Examples of PVT panels are modeled in section 6.5.1

The maximum electrical efficiency of a single junction photovoltaic device implied by semiconductor physics is typically around 40% [see discussion following (4.109)]. Only if reflections can be minimized and several different light absorption materials capturing the entire solar spectrum are stacked, may the theoretical Carnot efficiency (4.4) for the temperature of the Sun relative to a reference temperature at the surface of the Earth, i.e., about 95%, be approached. Considerations of power-flow optimization diminish this limit a bit. Honsberg (2002) and Green (2002) find a maximum thermodynamic efficiency of some 87% for an infinite stack of cells, which can be used as a starting point for discussing the losses deriving from semiconductor physical arguments

Monocrystalline silicon cells. These cells are made from pure monocrystalline silicon. In these cells, the silicon has a single continuous crystal lattice structure with almost no defects or impurities. The main advantage of monocrystalline cells is their high efficiency, which is typically around 15%. The disadvantage of these cells is that a complicated manufacturing process is required to produce monocrystalline silicon, which results in slightly higher costs than those of other technologies

multicrystalline silicon cell - an overview

Multicrystalline silicon cells. Multicrystalline cells are produced using numerous grains of monocrystalline silicon. In the manufacturing process, molten polycrystalline silicon is cast into ingots, which are subsequently cut into very thin wafers and assembled into complete cells. Multicrystalline cells are cheaper to produce than monocrystalline ones because of the simpler manufacturing process required. They are, however, slightly less efficient, with average efficiencies being around 12%

Amorphous silicon. The general characteristics of amorphous silicon solar cells are given in Chapter 1, Section 1.5.1Chapter 1Section 1.5.1. Generally, the main difference between these cells and the previous ones is that, instead of the crystalline structure, amorphous silicon cells are composed of silicon atoms in a thin homogenous layer. Additionally, amorphous silicon absorbs light more effectively than crystalline silicon, which leads to thinner cells, also known as a thin film PV technology. The greatest advantage of these cells is that amorphous silicon can be deposited on a wide range of substrates, both rigid and flexible. Their disadvantage is the low efficiency, which is on the order of 6%. Nowadays, the panels made from amorphous silicon solar cells come in a variety of shapes, such as roof tiles, which can replace normal brick tiles in a solar roof

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