guinea large mineral rotary kiln price

guinea large mineral rotary kiln price

Rotary Kiln, Calcined Magnesium Oxide, Limestone Production Line manufacturer / supplier in China, offering Project EPC Service of Active Lime Magnesite Calcination Production Line, Rotary Drum Washer Machine for Gold Ore, Chrome Ore, Stone, Sand and Gravel Wash Plant, Small Diesel 150*250 Portable Jaw Crusher Crushing Machine for Gold in Canada Price for Sale with CE and so on

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Hot Rotary Kiln Brief Introduction

We are a professional mining machinery manufacturer, the main equipment including: jaw crusher, cone crusher and other sandstone equipment;Ball mill, flotation machine, concentrator and other beneficiation equipment; Powder Grinding Plant, rotary dryer, briquette machine, mining, metallurgy and other related equipment.If you are interested in our products or want to visit the nearby production site, you can click the button to consult us.

I. Raw materials for production1. Limestone, dolomite and chalkThe particle size of raw material is required to be 10-40mm, the part exceeding the upper limit of 40mm and the lower limit of 10mm shall not exceed 5%, and the maximum particle size is ≤ 50mm.2. FuelThe fuel can be producer gas, natural gas, coal bed gas and pulverized coal, or electric heating.II. Production process(1) Raw material storage and transportationLimestone with particle size of 10-50 mm is transported to the plant area and stacked in the stockyard. Loaders are used for stockyard operation. The materials with qualified particle size are loaded into the receiving trough set up in the material yard by the loader. Under the receiving trough, the material is quantitatively fed by the feeder. The stone is sent to the large angle conveyor and then to the screening building. The limestone with qualified particle size after screening is weighed and then sent to the top bin of the preheater by the large angle conveyor. The sifted powder is sent to the storage yard by conveyor and transported out by forklift regularly.(2) Limestone calcinationLimestone calcination is composed of vertical preheater + rotary kiln + vertical cooler, with the output of 100 ~ 800t / D. the materials are introduced into the preheater body through the feeding chute from the top bin of the preheater. At the same time, the high-temperature flue gas from the rotary kiln preheat the materials to above 1000 ºC, so that the limestone is partially decomposed, and then pushed into the tail of the rotary kiln in turn by the hydraulic push rod, and then discharged after high-temperature calcination in the rotary kiln The material is cooled to the ambient temperature below + 60 ºC and discharged from the cooler. The air blown through the cooler enters the rotary kiln as secondary air to participate in combustion

XKG GROUP  was founded in 1956. It was restructured in 1996, After decades of development and growth, it has developed into a leader in the processing and manufacturing of mining processing equipment. It is a company  integrating design, development, production, sales and installation. The company covers an area of more than 60 acres, with a construction area of more than 10,000 square meters, and more than 60 sets (sets) of various types of processing equipment. XKJ GROUP has a production line with advanced technology . The company has 365 employees. Our factory cooperates with scientific research and design units to provide users with general contracting services for mineral processing experiments, project design, equipment selection and manufacturing, equipment installation and commissioning. At present, we can provide customers with a full range of crushing and screening aggregate production equipment, including jaw crushers, cone crushers, impact crushers, vertical impact crushers (sand making machines), vibrating screens, belt conveyor,fine sand recovery devices, Mobile crushing plant. A full range of beneficiation processing equipment, products mainly include mineral grinding , classification, Calcining &Cooling  ,conveying , metal beneficiation processing , tailings concentration etc. processing equipment. Our products are in mineral processing, gravel aggregate production, construction waste treatment, steel slag treatment and cement These fields have been widely used and have been exported to more than 40 countries and regions in the world. Our goal is to provide trusted products and services to customers around the world and create value for customers

china project epc service of active lime magnesite

XKJ GROUP is committed to providing customers with more professional services and higher quality products and equipment. If you have any questions, please feel free to communicate with our pre-sales engineers;We will help customers to choose the equipment model, process Solution design, the best equipment type recommendation, project investment budget analysis.If you have any questions, please communicate with us in time and look forward to our cooperation!

rotating kiln - an overview | sciencedirect topics

Rotating kilns were proposed as early as 1980 for use in solar particle heating applications [22]. The general principle is to feed particles into a rotating kiln/receiver with an aperture at one end of the receiver to allow incoming concentrated sunlight. The centrifugal force of the rotating receiver causes the particles to move along the walls of the receiver while they are irradiated by the concentrated sunlight. Early tests by Flamant et al. showed that these systems have a very high absorption factor (0.9–1), but the thermal efficiency was low (10–30%) for heating of CaCO3 at particle mass flow rates of about 1 g/s. During mid-2010, Wu et al. [20,21,24,25] developed a centrifugal particle receiver design and prototype that employs a similar concept (Fig. 6.7). Small bauxite ceramic particles (∼1 mm) were introduced into a rotating centrifugal receiver with different inclination angles at mass flow rates of about 3–10 g/s. The particles were irradiated using a 15 kWth solar simulator with an irradiance ranging from about 300 to 700 kW/m2. For a face-down receiver inclination and incident irradiance of 670 kW/m2, Wu et al. reported a particle outlet temperature of 900°C and a receiver efficiency of about 75% (±4%) [20]. Challenges include maintaining a constant and sufficient mass flow rate of particles at larger scales, parasitic energy requirements, and reliability associated with a large rotating receiver system

The Galoter retort process uses an inclined hot cylindrical rotating kiln as the retort vessel (Crawford et al., 2008). Solid oil shale particles are separated from the dried crushed feed in a cyclone separator. A mixing chamber combines the feed with hot recycled ash from combustion of the spent shale. Then the mixture is added to the kiln where the oil and gas vapors are removed and condensed to products. The spent shale is burned in an external furnace with some solids returned to the mixer while the remainder are cooled and sent to disposal, while the hot gases from combustion are used to dry and preheat the feed stream. The process has a high thermal efficiency and high oil recovery. Commercial scale units were first online in the 1950s and 1960, but were shut down and replaced with two larger 3000 tonne/day units in 1980. Between 2009 and 2015 three additional units with slight modifications were built but were called Petroter plants. All units were in Estonia

The newest modifications of the Galoter retort are the Enefit process and the Petroter process is a technology for a production of shale oil. In this process, oil shale is decomposed into shale oil, gas, and spent residue. The process was developed in 1950s and it is used commercially for the shale oil production in Estonia. There are projects for further development of this technology and for expansion of its usage, e.g., in Jordan and the United States

rotating kiln - an overview | sciencedirect topics

The retort is a near-horizontal- slightly-inclined cylindrical rotating retort and the feed oil shale is crushed and sized to approximately 25 mm. The shale ash is used as solid heat carrier. In the horizontal cylindrical retort, the dried oil shale mixed with the hot ash carrier, and is heated to 500 °C, it is pyrolyzed at the interval approximately 20 min, shale coke is formed, it comes out from the retort with the ash into the vertical fluidized combustion chamber, where it is combusted with incoming up-flowing air, shale coke is converted into shale ash, having a temperature on the order of 700–800 °C (1290–1470 °F)

The shale ash is separated from the hot flue gas in the cyclone, and is mixed with dried oil shale, both are introduced into the retort, the dried oil shale is heated and pyrolyzed, the shale ash with the shale coke is recirculated. The hot flue gas leaving from the cyclone is introduced to the waste heat boiler and then to the fluidized drier for drying the oil shale feed. The shale oil vapor exits from the retort, is cooled successively, thus high-boiling oil, low-boiling oil, naphtha fractions, and high calorific gas are obtained

Two Galoter solid heat carrier retorts, each with processing capacity of 3000 tons of oil shale per day were built at Estonia Narva Power Plant (Golubev, 2003; Opik et al., 2001). Technological chemical efficiency accounts for 73%–78% with an oil yield of 85%–90% of Fisher Assay. The retort gas contains low-boiling olefins 30% and may be used for producing petrochemicals or as town gas; besides the oil shale as feed (Senchugov and Kaidalov, 1997)

rotating kiln - an overview | sciencedirect topics

This retorting technology is complex, having more equipment and machines, the operation is not easy, Estonia and Russia have spent much money and time for developing; more than 50 years for scaling up from laboratory to pilot plant and at last to the commercial scale

Overall, the Galoter Process is similar to the Lurgi-Ruhrgas, Tosco II and Shell (SPHER, SSRP) processes in using hot spent shale as the heat carrier. Dried oil shale (smaller than 1-inch at about 110 °C, 230 °F) is mixed with hot spent shale (at 800 °C, 1470 °F) in a screw mixer, then passed into a 500 °C (930 °F) rotary kiln after which the retorted shale and product vapors pass into a gas-solid separator, from which the vapors are sent to the product recovery section and a part of the spent shale is discarded. The balance of the spent shale is fed into an air-blown riser combustor where burning of residual carbon raises the temperature of the solid to 800 °C (1470 °F). The hot shale stream is used to provide heat for retorting, while the hot gases are used to raise steam and then to dry the wet incoming shale

The TOSCO (The Oil Shale Corporation) process used a rotating kiln that was reminiscent of a cement kiln in which heat was transferred to the shale by ceramic balls heated in an exterior burner (Figure 4.6) (Whitcombe and Vawter, 1976). The process, which was initiated in the 1960s and 1970s and developed by the Oil Shale Corporation, is more correctly described as a retorting/upgrading process (US OTA, 1980)

rotating kiln - an overview | sciencedirect topics

In the process, oil shale—crushed and sized (nominally to 112 inch) raw oil shale and preheated to 260°C (500°F) by interaction with flue gases from the ceramic ball heater—is introduced into a horizontal rotary kiln together with 1.5 times its weight in previously heated ceramic balls. The temperature of the shale is raised to its minimal retort temperature of 480°C (900°F). The kerogen is converted to distillable shale oil that is fed to a fractionator for hydrocarbon recovery and water separation. The spent shale and the ceramic balls are discharged and separated; the ceramic balls are returned to their heater; and the spent shale is cooled, moistened for dust control, and removed for land disposal. The fractionator separates the shale oil hydrocarbon vapors into gas, naphtha, gas oil, and higher boiling bottom oil

The gas, naphtha, and gas oil are sent to various upgrading units, while the bottom oil is sent to a delayed coking unit, where it is converted to lower boiling products and by-product coke. Both gas oil and raw naphtha are upgraded in separate hydrogenation units through reaction with high-pressure hydrogen (produced on-site from steam reforming of the fuel gas originally recovered from the retort) (Dinneen, 1976; US OTA, 1980)

The typical spent shale produced by the TOSCO II process was a fine-grained material (containing approximately 4.5% w/w of organic carbon via char formation) comprising approximately 80 mass% of the raw oil shale feedstock. The mineral constituents of the spent shale, consisting of principally dolomite, calcite, silica, and silicates, are mostly unchanged by the retorting process treatment, except that some carbonate minerals such as dolomite have decomposed to oxides liberating carbon dioxide. During the retorting process, significant size reduction is also taking place, yielding the particle (grain) size of most spent shale finer than 8 mesh. One problem with the system was slow destruction of the ceramic balls by contact with the abrasive shale particles

rotating kiln - an overview | sciencedirect topics

Dry processing routes also begin with a conversion of UF6 to UO2F2 using superheated steam in a rotating kiln [3]. The kiln allows for a counterflow of H2/H2O gas mixture that reacts with the UO2F2 compound resulting in a mixture of U3O8 and UO2. This can be further reduced to UO2 by heating under diluted hydrogen gas (Ar–H2) at elevated temperatures. The limited number of steps during this fabrication route requires tight control of the processing parameters that lead to consistently low surface area powders with higher fluorine content than the wet chemical routes. The powder produced from this route has poor flowability that requires additional steps such as granulation and the addition of lubricants to aid in the automated production of pellets

In this method the heat is delivered to oil shale by hot solid particles, normally oil shale ash. Rotating kiln or fluidized bed retort is used for this process. The decomposition of oil shale has been completed at 500°C through recycled particles. Oil vapors are separated from the solids and condensed to collect the oil. Before mixing with the hot recycled solids, the heat is recovered from the shale ash and combustion gases to preheat the raw oil shale. As the hot recycled solids are heated in a separate furnace, therefore there is no way for oil shale gas to get diluted with combustion exhaust gas (see Fig. 9.9). The only disadvantage is that more water is used to handle the finer shale ash

Portland cement is obtained by heating limestone and clay or other silicate mixtures at high temperatures (>1500°C) in a rotating kiln. The resulting clinker, when cooled, is mixed with gypsum (calcium sulfate) and ground to a highly uniform fine powder. Anhydrous Portland cement consists mainly of lime (CaO), silica (SiO2), and alumina (Al2O3), in addition to small amounts of magnesia (MgO), ferric oxide (Fe2O3), sulfur trioxide (SO3), and other oxides that are added as impurities in the raw materials during its manufacture. When these oxides are blended together, they form the four basic components of Portland cement, namely: tricalcium silicate, dicalcium silicate, tricalcium aluminate, and tetracalcium aluminoferrite. Table 18.1 describes the main oxide compositions, their chemical formulas, and abbreviations, in addition to listing the average of each in commercially available ordinary Portland cement (OPC) (wt.%) [1]

rotating kiln - an overview | sciencedirect topics

The dry process was developed in the late 1960s and is widely used today. UF6 is vaporized from steam or hot-water-heated vaporizing baths, and vaporized UF6 is introduced into the feed end of a rotating kiln. Here, it meets and reacts with superheated steam to give a plume of uranyl fluoride (UO2F2). UO2F2 passes down the kiln where it meets with a countercurrent flow of steam and hydrogen and is converted to UO2 powder. The reaction sequence follows the equations below

The UO2 powder resulting from dry processes is of low bulk density and fine particle size. Therefore, granulation before pressing and the employment of a pore former process are usual during the pellet fabrication process

The objectives of calcination/reduction are to: (1) remove the remainder of the concentrate’s H2O, (2) reduce about 1/4 of the concentrate’s Ni mineral to nickel metal, (3) reduce most of the concentrate’s Fe3 + minerals to Fe2 + minerals and about ~ 5% to metallic iron, (4) add enough coal in the kiln so that some goes forward to electric furnace smelting for final Ni and Fe reduction, and (5) provide hot ~ 900 °C calcine to the ferronickel smelting furnace (to minimize its electrical energy requirement)

rotating kiln - an overview | sciencedirect topics

Calcination/reduction is always done in long (up to 185 m) hydrocarbon-fired rotating kilns [9]. The kilns are typically sloped about 4° from horizontal. They rotate at about 1 rpm. Dewatered concentrate is fed continuously to the upper end of the rotating kiln. Coal (about 5% of the feed) is also added continuously along with pelletized recycle calcination/reduction kiln dust. These materials flow slowly down the rotating kiln and out the hot discharge (lower) end of the kiln

Energy and reducing gas are continuously supplied to the rotating kiln by partially combusting hydrocarbon fuel at the discharge end of the kiln. This combustion produces hot reducing gas which (1) heats and dries the feed and (2) partially reduces the feed’s Ni and Fe minerals as it travels countercurrently up the kiln

The products of calcination/reduction kilns are dusty CO2, H2O, N2 off-gas (250 °C), and hot (900 °C), very dry, partially reduced, coal-bearing calcine. The calcine contains 1.5–3% Ni, 15% Fe, 1–2% carbon, and various Mg and Si oxides. The off-gas is dedusted in electrostatic precipitators. Its dust (~ 15% of the kiln feed) is pelletized and recycled to the calcination/reduction kiln. The dedusted off-gas is released to atmosphere or occasionally used to heat the dewatering kiln. The hot calcine continuously discharges from the lower end of the kiln into brick-lined transfer containers. The calcine is then fed hot into a ferronickel smelting furnace

rotating kiln - an overview | sciencedirect topics

Improving energy efficiency is an important step in implementing the strategy of giving energy conservation high priority. We need to reduce unreasonable energy demand as far as possible and use energy more efficiently in order to provide more and better energy services with relatively little investment in resources. Industry, transportation, and buildings are key areas for energy conservation

Energy conservation in industry. Industrial energy consumption accounts for a large proportion of China's total consumption, and the huge potential for savings should be fully tapped. As our industrialization continues, we need to take advantage of our position as a late starter and widely adopt advanced processes and technologies to bring our industrial energy consumption up to the world's most advanced level. Globally, the pace of technological advances is increasing, and new procedures and equipment are constantly emerging. The focus of raising energy efficiency is shifting from the technological refinement of individual appliances to system optimization and holistic improvement. Current overall energy consumption by the world's leading iron and steel companies is only 630 kg of standard coal per ton of steel, and this may eventually fall to below 570 kg. The per-unit consumption of a large-scale advanced dry-process cement rotating kiln is only 96 kg of standard coal equivalent, and this may drop to below 86 kg in the future

Energy conservation in transportation. In industrialized countries, the energy consumed in transportation accounts for 30 percent to 40 percent of the total. At present, the proportion in China is still relatively low, but as more and more families buy cars, the amount of energy the transportation sector consumes will rise dramatically, and we must pay careful attention to this trend. The public transportation system can offer convenient and energy-efficient transportation for the general public, both reducing traffic jams and benefitting the environment. In Tokyo, for instance, 80 percent of passenger trips are taken by public transportation, 70 percent of them by rail. Making the transportation system and the means of transportation more energy-efficient and environmentally friendly has already become an international trend. Take the current gasoline-electric hybrid cars for example: gasoline consumption can be as low as 3 to 3.5 liters per 100 km, 50 percent to 70 percent lower than cars powered by traditional means, and there is potential for further reduction. Some countries are in the process of developing cars powered solely by electricity that can run 500 km on a single charge, and demonstration models of fuel-cell vehicles powered by hydrogen energy with zero CO2 emissions are beginning to appear. In the course of our country's industrialization and urbanization, oil-saving and environmentally friendly goals for the development of the automotive industry should be given high priority in order to bring the industry's energy efficiency gradually into line with leading levels elsewhere in the world. At the same time we must energetically develop high-speed commuter and intercity rail systems to streamline public transportation significantly and thus reduce energy consumption and pollution

rotating kiln - an overview | sciencedirect topics

Energy conservation in buildings. Energy is consumed in buildings for heating, air conditioning, ventilation, lighting, hot water, elevators, and office and home appliances. In industrialized countries, energy consumption in buildings accounts for more than 30 percent of the total. China is currently in the process of rapidly developing its construction industry, adding approximately 2 billion m2 of floor space each year. In fact, China is now the largest construction market in the world, and its energy consumption in buildings is gradually increasing. Therefore, government office buildings and public facilities need to take the lead in promoting energy conservation and thus act as models for residential and commercial buildings. We must actively push for the application of energy-saving technologies to achieve significant reductions in the energy demands of buildings—for example, high-efficiency insulation materials; low heat emission glass; high-efficiency heating and cooling systems; solar hot water systems; water, ground, and air source heat pumps; energy-saving lighting; and more intelligent buildings. Such innovations will reduce energy consumption in new buildings by 50 percent to 65 percent, and buildings with extra-low energy consumption will save 90 percent. In the future it may be possible to construct new buildings with low or even zero CO2 emissions. We can carry out comprehensive technological upgrading to streamline central heating systems by improving terminals, pipeline systems, and heating sources, thus increasing the current efficiency of less than 55 percent to approximately 85 percent [6]. We need to strengthen energy conservation standards for buildings, promote energy-saving building design, and use energy-saving materials and equipment in buildings to continue to improve the operating efficiency of their energy systems. In this way we can effectively reduce energy demand growth in buildings while at the same time making people's homes and living conditions better

Basically, industry converts raw materials (renewable or nonrenewable) to valuable products. Industrial wastes are produced during the process. When analyzed from the waste point of view, some sectors come forward such as the mining, oil, gas, and agriculture sectors. The wastes dumped into the environment in an uncontrolled manner, which has caused major damage in the past. Hence, today industrial manufacturing has to change its direction from waste management to waste utilization to move toward sustainable production. Scarcity of resources leads to a lot of problems in industrial areas such as increasing cost of products and compatibility. Only, the problem caused a lot of conflicts in the past as briefly shown in Table 3. It can be observed that it goes on today as well, but in different forms. Thus, industrial wastes are as worthy as resources in the present world

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