jakarta environmental glass rotary kiln

jakarta environmental glass rotary kiln

Recycling is efficient and sustainable, saves energy and natural resources. Glass is one of the very few examples where the same material can be recycled over and over again without any loss in quality. The clean color separated stuff can be turned into new bottles and jars. But what to do with the broken multi-colored bits that can not be used for recycling? There’s a company in Innisfil, Canada, with a state-of-the-art plant that can take this tiny bits and turn it into an innovative product and contributes to complete the reycle circle

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Hot Rotary Kiln Brief Introduction

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Traves Ogilvie, LEED AP and head of sales for the U.S. and Mexico for Poraver North America, is explaining the process of manufacturing Poraver® expanded glass, our functional raw material with distinctive advantages made of post-consumer recycled glass

Crushing and grinding alone doesn’t bring waste glass processing far enough to make a functional raw material for building products manufactures or other industries. Rather than a re-engineered raw material you just end up with a resized material. Manufacturing Poraver® expanded glass is a process where crushed glass cullet is upcycled on the particle size level and re-formed into spherical-aerated-granules. The product is stable and inert with a chemical composition containing around 71% silicon dioxide (SiO2) and is used as versatile raw material and lightweight filler in different industries

turning waste glass into expanded glass | poraver

After learning how to expand clay for his family’s precast concrete business in the Bavarian region of Germany in the ’60s and ’70s, Hans Veit Dennert upped his game in the early ’80s when he discovered how to expand glass. Subsequently, in 1983 he founded Poraver GmbH and today the largest producer of expanded glass aggregates worldwide. He still presides over the company today

The inhouse developed process begins with a very fine gradation of post-consumer recycled glass. The cullet is dried and sent to the ball mill where it is ground down to very fine flour (< 36 microns). The next step is to mix the glass flour with a silicate binder and an expanding agent and blended into a viscous slurry. For larger grain sizes above 1 mm the semidry material is applied to an inverted rotating granulating dish. The slurry then is formed into spherical-shaped grains. The size of the grains can be altered by changing the inversion angle or the rotational speed. To make grain sizes below 1 mm a spray dryer is used

After the granulating process the spheres go into a rotary kiln that’s heated to more than 1,400 degrees F. In the kiln the expand to 200 % volume. Then the granules are cooled, sieved and packaged into seven different grain sizes ranging from 0.04 mm to 4 mm

First match the particle size of your existing fine sand with the corresponding expanded glass grain size. For face mixes, self-consolidating concrete and sprayable mixes, the Poraver® grain size is typically 0.25 - 0.5 mm. For gravity-cast mixes, architectural and structural precast, the grain size is typically 0.25 - 1 mm. If there are larger aggregates in the mix, you can replace some (or all of them) with grain size 1 - 2.5 mm. Finally, you must decide how much you’re going to replace. This ratio is driven by the concrete’s mechanical properties and performance requirements

turning waste glass into expanded glass | poraver

A key component of reformulating with expanded glass is to replace the sand in the mix by volume. This is because expanded glass has a specific gravity value less than 0.550. Most sands and aggregates have specific gravity values north of 2.5. Thus replacement by volume is key as expanded glass is nearly five times lighter than silica sand

Once you’ve decided on a replacement ratio, you’re ready to mix and cast. Poraver® expanded glass uptakes water at a rate of 20 - 30 % mass. One hundred pounds of dry expanded glass will absorb 20 to 30 pounds of water. This is actually minimal absorption when you consider that 100 pounds of Poraver® is 7 cubic feet, or a quarter yard, of material. The water that weeps into the expanded grains begrudgingly weeps back out of them. This water remains available, within the matrix, for cement hydration. Expanded glass works as an internal curing agent extending the dehydration time of concrete and dry mortar. This is due to the initial water absorption followed by a slow return of the mix water to the matrix from within the expanded glass granules

The first method is to take 20 % of the calculated mix water and pre-hydrate the expanded glass with it. Absorption takes only a few seconds. The Poraver® grains can then be blended with other aggregates and the mixing process can proceed as usual. The second method is to run through the mixing process as usual and introduce the quenched EG after the cement, sand, aggregates, water and additives are blended. This method is most commonly used in ready-mix and structural pre-cast concrete operations

turning waste glass into expanded glass | poraver

Glass aggregates in concrete are sometimes associated with the problem of alkali-silica reaction (ASR). Alkalis, present in portland cement, that encounter “reactive aggregates” initiate a chemical reaction that forms a gel that expands when hydrated. Signs of ASR are only seen in compact concrete. With expanded glass as an admixture, you create porous concrete. In these enhanced concretes the swelling pressure caused by the ASR gels is dissipated through the pores. No hairline cracks, edge spalling, drops of gel or other peculiarities appear. The positive effect of Poraver against ASR is officially tested confirmed

Poraver® expanded glass is widely available throughout the United States. It’s packaged in various sizes and is also available in bulk for silo storage. If you would like to test Poraver® expanded glass for your applications, just request a free sample here

Traves W. Ogilvie, LEED AP, is Director of Sales for the U.S. and Mexico for Poraver North America. With nearly 30 years of experience in the commercial construction and building products industry, Traves has a broad knowledge of all types of composite materials from concretes and mortars to thermoset FRP and polymer concrete. As a LEED accredited professional, he has worked extensively with the USGBC to quantify how recycled content contributes toward LEED points. Today, Traves travels the country as an expanded glass formulation expert in GFRC, concrete, FRP and polymer concrete. He can be reached at [email protected]

turning waste glass into expanded glass | poraver

Siegfried Kratzer wird für 25 Jahre Betriebszugehörigkeit geehrt. (Von links nach rechts: Geschäftsführer Matthias Gebhardt, Jubilar Siegfried Kratzer, Produktionsleiter Christian Weih, Vorsitzender Geschäftsführer David Veit Krafft)

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rotary kiln incinerators on the rise in waste management

Incineration has become an essential tool in managing industrial and municipal wastes more sustainably, as long-landfilled materials such as hazardous medical wastes, petrochemicals, ammunitions, and more, have proven detrimental to the environment

While many types of incineration equipment exist, the rotary kiln, a diverse and flexible thermal processing machine, continues to gain market share as the preferred method of incineration for a number of reasons

While an increasing focus on sustainability has improved waste generation and recycling, many wastes are simply not suitable for reuse or recycling. When recycling or reuse is not a viable option, incineration provides a much-needed outlet for wastes that cannot be recycled economically, or because of concerns over hazardous or toxic components

Incineration significantly reduces the volume of waste by converting it to ash. This reduction in volume is a major environmental benefit, decreasing the amount of space the material will take up in a landfill and ultimately contributing to a declining need for landfills. A reduced volume also makes transportation more efficient (and more economical) because less hauling is required

rotary kiln incinerators on the rise in waste management

When disposed of, hazardous components pose environmental threats to soil, air, water, and human and animal life. Through thermal decomposition, incineration eliminates hazardous components from the waste, taking them out of the environment completely and preventing any potential associated environmental degradation

Rotary kilns are used to carry out physical changes and chemical reactions in a variety of industrial settings. They are often chosen for their high-capacity and continuous production. When it comes to incineration, however, they are selected for one simple reason: flexibility

The ability to simultaneously handle multiple waste streams has become essential in today’s waste processing market. At one time, it was not uncommon for large manufacturers to have their own in-house incineration facility to handle the waste they produced, but as waste management became more complex, the industry moved to outsourcing incineration needs to avoid managing on-site facilities and the many complexities that accompany the task

rotary kiln incinerators on the rise in waste management

This developed into waste handling companies that collect waste from multiple sources and process it for a fee, which has since become the industry norm. In this type of business model, the rotary kiln provides the ideal processing solution, as waste processors need something that can handle the diverse range of waste streams they collect. If not for the rotary kiln, these processors would require multiple different types of systems to manage these waste streams

The rotary kiln is also capable accepting feedstocks of varying moisture content and particle sizes, reducing the need for pre-treatment in many cases; from barrels to material fines, shredded waste, and everything in between, rotary kiln incinerators accept it all

In addition to the industry as a whole changing, the make-up of the waste itself is changing as well. While advancements in technology are producing more sophisticated products than ever before, they are also yielding more complex waste streams

rotary kiln incinerators on the rise in waste management

The process parameters of incineration may vary depending on the types of wastes being handled. In general, however, incineration employs controlled temperature profiles in order to volatilize organic components in the waste, thus eliminating hazardous compounds

Though indirect-fired kilns are available, almost all rotary kiln incinerator systems utilize a direct-fired rotary kiln, where the products of combustion are in direct contact with the waste being processed. Material and combustion gases are fed into the rotating drum, which is sealed at both ends to maintain the required temperature profile within the kiln

Most incinerators are configured with a co-current air flow, meaning the material and products of combustion flow parallel to each other in the kiln (i.e., the waste material and combustion products are fed into the kiln at the same end)

rotary kiln incinerators on the rise in waste management

Although these components are available separately, they are best purchased as a complete system from a single-source provider, as there are many integrated components and regulatory requirements that can be difficult to manage independently

Incineration provides a valuable opportunity to manage both non-hazardous or hazardous wastes that are otherwise not economical or practical to recycle or reuse. As the incineration industry evolves to handle more complex and diverse waste streams, rotary kiln incinerators are becoming increasingly more widespread

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